Natural Products Insider

SEP-OCT 2018

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44 INSIDER September/October 2018 44 INSIDER September/October Infl ammation is one of the body's natural defense mechanisms, addressing hazardous stimuli such as tissue damage or allergens. On a short-term basis, infl ammation can help the body return to a healthy state. However, according to a 2016 review, "Uncontrolled infl ammatory response is the main cause of a vast continuum of disorders including allergies, cardiovascular dysfunctions, metabolic syndrome, cancer and autoimmune diseases." 1 While various pharmaceuticals are available to help control and suppress infl ammatory crisis, the potential for side effects and the desire for a natural course of action lead many consumers to seek alternative solutions. The review noted several herbs with anti-infl ammatory effects that have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies, including Curcuma longa (curcumin), Zingiber offi cinale (ginger), Rosmarinus offi cinalis (rosemary), Borago offi cinalis (borage), evening primrose and devil's claw. It also mentioned, "the treatment of infl ammation is not a one-dimensional remedy," and therefore, suggested "a multidimensional therapeutic approach to infl ammation with the help of herbal medicine and modifi cation in lifestyle." Blake Ebersole, president of NaturPro Scientifi c, pointed to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as an emerging anti-infl ammatory ingredient that's been studied in large trials in Europe. It's a peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) ligand that exerts anti-infl ammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective actions. 2 A 2014 review noted PEA was fi rst identifi ed as an anti-infl ammatory compound more than half a century ago, but greater exploration didn't occur until the mid-1990s. PEA was shown to reduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a pro-infl ammatory endotoxin)-induced pulmonary infl ammation in mice, as well as mast cell degranulation and edema formation in various infl ammatory models. 3 The review mentioned more recent investigation of the anti-infl ammatory mechanisms. PEA inhibited phosphorylation of kinases involved in activation of pro-infl ammatory pathways, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κβ) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), as well as preventing degradation of the inhibitory IκB-α, which when associated to NF-κβ prevents its nuclear translocation. 4,5 PEA also modulated the expression of enzymes involved in pro-infl ammatory processes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduced NO and pro- infl ammatory cytokines production in vitro and in vivo, following different pro- infl ammatory stimuli, such as carrageenan or LPS. 4,6,7,8 Olive oil has been shown to modulate the lipid membrane composition and the production of infl ammatory mediators, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO. 9,10,11 One of the most abundant olive polyphenols is 2-hydroxytyrosol (HT). One study assessed the effects of HT (from DSM) on infl ammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines, and identifi ed anti-infl ammatory constituents of aqueous olive extracts (olive vegetation water [OVW], from DSM). 12 Results indicated HT inhibited production of NO and PGE2, refl ecting strong anti-infl ammatory activity. HT and OVW diminished secretion of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α) and chemokines (CXCL10/IP [interferon γ-induced protein]-10, CCL [chemokine ligand]2/MCP [monocyte chemoattractant protein]-1). HT and OVW concentration- dependently reduced the expression of genes of iNOS, IL-1α, CXCL10/IP-10, MIP [macrophage infl ammatory protein]-1β, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and PGE2 synthase. The effects of HT were partly mediated via the NF-κβ pathway, as shown by RT-PCR analysis. HT was identifi ed as the main bioactive compound of OVW. Researchers concluded the study provided "new insights into the molecular and biochemical mode of action that HT and its natural 'counterpart,' OVW, exert in infl ammatory processes." Another study evaluated the effect of HT-supplemented refi ned olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 13 The results suggested the supplementation of refi ned olive oil with HT may be advantageous in RA with signifi cant impact not only on chronic infl ammation, but also on acute infl ammatory processes. In an in vitro and in vivo murine study, melon extract (Cucumis melo LC) was shown to attenuate infl ammatory response, thanks in part to its high enzymatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. 14 A double-blind study examined the effect of vegetarian GliSODin ® (from Paris-based Isocell S.A. and distributed in the United States by PLT Health Solutions) on selected infl ammatory markers in competitive rowers. 15 GliSODin provides a melon source of SOD with gliadin, a wheat protein that guards SOD during digestion. After six weeks, SOD activity was signifi cantly higher (P=0.0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein (CRP) was signifi cantly (P=0.00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than in the placebo group. Researchers concluded "supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased infl ammation in the serum of professional rowers." Inflammation Short-term inflammation is a protective response, but chronic inflammation can have a negative effect on the human body. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), Terminalia chebula, grape seed extract and magnolia are among the options for formulators. The anti-inflammatory market is projected to reach US$130.6 billion by 2026 with a CAGR of 8.5 percent from 2018 to 2026. Researched Ingredients With Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Karen Butler INSIDER's Take

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