Natural Products Insider

SEP-OCT 2018

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46 INSIDER September/October 2018 Through cellular, animal and human experiments, green tea and its major polyphenolic component epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have shown anti- infl ammatory effects, likely by suppressing the gene and/or protein expression of infl ammatory cytokines and infl ammation- related enzymes. 16 A 2016 review concluded, "Most of the results from the human studies indicated the benefi cial effects of green tea and tea catechins against infl ammatory diseases," and "can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity." A 2017 review added, "Studies revealed green tea polyphenols attenuate infl ammatory responses in signaling pathways, by downregulating IKK [I kappa B kinase], NF-κβ (0.4 mg/mL [14]), cytokines like TNF-α, infl ammatory markers, COX-2 and Bcl [B-cell lymphoma]-2." 17 A 2015 review summarized current and prospective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), with primary focus on the dietary supplement avocado/soybean unsaponifi ables (ASU). 18 ASU modulated OA pathogenesis by inhibiting a number of molecules and pathways implicated in OA. ASU's anabolic properties stimulated the synthesis of collagen and aggrecan by inhibiting infl ammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF and PGE2 through modulation of NF-κβ. What's more, the combination of ASU and EGCG affected an array of infl ammatory molecules, including expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2 in chondrocytes. Extracted from turmeric, curcumin (Curcuma longa) has been indicated as an anti- infl ammatory, blocking NF-κβ activation increased by several different inflammatory stimuli—as well as suppressing inflammation through other mechanisms. 19 One study pointed out: "Extensive research within the past two decades has shown that curcumin mediates its anti-infl ammatory effects through the downregulation of infl ammatory transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kappa β), enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase [LOX]) and cytokines (such as TNF, IL-1 and IL-6). Because of the crucial role of infl ammation in most chronic diseases, the potential of curcumin has been examined in neoplastic, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic diseases." 20 Despite its success in research, concerns have been raised about curcumin's bioavailability, which has led to the development of unique solutions and delivery systems. According to a 2017 review: "Curcumin has received worldwide attention for its multiple health benefits, which appear to act primarily through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. These benefits are best achieved when curcumin is combined with agents such as piperine [the major active component of black pepper], which increase its bioavailability significantly. Research suggests that curcumin can help in the management of oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety and hyperlipidemia. It may also help in the management of exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and subsequent performance in active people. In addition, a relatively low dose can provide health benefits for people that do not have diagnosed health conditions." 21 A study at St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India, provided clinical evidence of piperine's role in increasing the bioavailability of curcumin. 22 When 2,000 mg of curcumin (as C3 Complex ® , from Sabinsa) was co-administered with 20 mg of piperine (as BioPerine ® , from Sabinsa), the bioavailability of curcumin was enhanced 2,000 percent compared to bioavailability of curcumin alone at doses that were devoid of adverse side effects. Longvida ® , the patented optimized curcumin extract from Verdure Sciences ® , features SLCP™ (solid lipid curcumin particle) technology. According to the company, SLCP encapsulates the curcumin in a lipid matrix, allowing it to survive digestion and enter the bloodstream, reaching target tissues with a 24-hour circulation of free curcumin. One study examined the effects of Longvida on creatine kinase (CK), and infl ammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in college students. 23 The results indicated Longvida supplementation reduced biological infl ammation, resulting in signifi cantly smaller increases in CK (-48 percent), TNF-α (-25 percent) and IL-8 (-21 percent) compared to placebo. Indena S.p.A. uses its Phytosome ® delivery format to improve absorption. A human clinical study indicated overall curcuminoid uptake was about 29-fold higher for Meriva ® , the company's patented Phytosome turmeric formulation curcumin, as compared to an unformulated curcuminoid mixture. 24 "Meriva is supported by more than 30 clinical trials demonstrating effectiveness in 10 different health conditions, showing the ability to modulate the infl ammatory response," reported Cosimo Palumbo, Indena's marketing director. He pointed to an eight-month study involving 100 subjects with OA, where the ingredient "induced a statistically signifi cant reduction of numerous markers of infl ammation such as CRP levels that decreased by 16-fold." 25 In another study of 50 individuals with OA, the treatment group took Meriva in a dose refl ecting 200 mg/d of curcumin. 26 After three months, for subjects receiving Meriva, the global Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score decreased by 58 percent (P<0.05); walking distance in the treadmill test was prolonged from 76 m to 332 m (P<0.05); and CRP levels decreased from Inflammation Legal Pitfalls: Infl ammation-Related Claims FDA has consistently taken a tough stance on most infl ammation-related claims, contending they are too close to disease claims (thanks to infl ammation's association with so many chronic health conditions). For more information, check out the INSIDER article, "Infl ammation Claims: Worth the Heat?" 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