Natural Products Insider

SEP-OCT 2018

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48 INSIDER September/October 2018 168 ± 18 to 11.3 ± 4.1 mg/L in the subpopulation with high CRP. In comparison, the control group experienced only a modest improvement in the parameters. Researchers concluded Meriva was clinically effective as a complementary management tool in OA. OmniActive Health Technologies also uses a unique method for enhancing the bioactives in its CurcuWIN. The company's UltraSOL Nutrient Delivery System converts lipophilic compounds and poorly absorbed nutrients to water-dispersible ingredients for enhanced bioavailability. In a human clinical trial, CurcuWIN increased relative absorption of total curcuminoids 46 times over standard curcumin. 27 According to the company, the ingredient contains a minimum 20 percent curcuminoids in the same profi le as found naturally in turmeric. AyuFlex ® from Natreon Inc. is an aqueous extract derived from the ancient Indian Ayurvedic edible fruits of Terminalia chebula, offering a vegan option for joint health formulations. Backed by seven clinical studies to promote optimal joint health and reduce chronic discomfort, its mechanism of action is to inhibit the enzymes responsible for pain and infl ammation. The ingredient was shown to reduce the infl ammation biomarker hs [highly sensitive] CRP and support healthy joints in people with activity-dependent knee pain. 28 Another study of 100 subjects experiencing knee joint discomfort for at least six months found Ayufl ex supported joint health, demonstrated through modifi ed WOMAC scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) and knee-swelling index (KSI). 29 Root extracts of the adaptogen Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) have been studied for their potential anti- infl ammatory and chondroprotective effects. One review noted ashwagandha "can inhibit cyclooxygenase, the enzyme responsible for the formation of important biological mediators of infl ammatory and anaphylactic reactions. Pharmacological inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of infl ammation and pain." 30,31 Sensoril ® from Natreon Inc. is a patented blend of the roots and leaves of the ashwagandha plant, which the company says results in a high level of bioactives. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled clinical study, 60 patients with knee joint pain and discomfort were given 250 or 125 mg/d of Sensoril or placebo. 32 At the end of 12 weeks, compared to baseline and placebo, signifi cant reductions were observed in mean modifi ed WOMAC and KSI in Sensoril 250 mg (P<0.001) and 125 mg (P<0.05) groups. VAS scores for pain, stiffness and disability were signifi cantly reduced in Sensoril 250 mg (P<0.001) and 125 mg (P<0.01) groups. The 250 mg group showed earliest effi cacy, at four weeks. Another botanical, Zingiber offi cinale— commonly known as ginger—has been linked to joint health benefi ts, particularly in the autoimmune condition RA. Brian Appell, activation marketing manager, OmniActive Health Technologies, specifi ed, "The potent anti-infl ammatory properties in the gingerols in ginger are believed to help provide protection against harmful free radicals." 33 He added, "As an anti-infl ammatory, ginger has been shown to reduce the production of cytokines IL-1 and IL-6, and inhibit COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes, which play a role in the infl ammatory process." 34 Another root extract commonly used in Ayurveda, Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi), acts by selectively inhibiting the COX-2 enzyme, and consequently reducing prostaglandins synthesis. 35 Deanne Dolnick, science director, TR Nutritionals, pointed to research that touted, "In modern biomedical studies, Bacopa monnieri has been shown in animal models to inhibit the release of the pro-infl ammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 to aid in the treatment of arthritis." 36 The omega-3s eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fi sh, algae and other marine oils. Nate Matusheski, Ph.D., scientifi c leader, nutrition science and advocacy, at DSM Nutritional Products, stated EPA and DHA serve as biological precursors to resolvins and protectins (bioactive metabolites) that help regulate infl ammatory processes. 37 Omega-3 supplementation has been found to lower concentrations of pro-infl ammatory eicosanoids in the bloodstream, 38 a biological mechanism that may have implications for joint health. Gretchen Vannice, MS, RDN, head of global nutrition education at AlaskOmega, mentioned if people consume enough EPA to have it readily available in their cells, the body uses it to make eicosanoids. 37 Vannice identifi ed "the newest and most exciting research about EPA and DHA regarding infl ammation" as the discovery in this century that both EPA and DHA are precursors to special pro-resolving mediators (SPMs)—omega-3 derived molecules made in the human body that resolve infl ammation. 39 "There are several families of SPMs, the most common of which are resolvins, protectins and maresins," she explained. "These SPMs have been shown to promote resolution of infl ammation; reduce pain; reduce swelling and redness; promote clearance of bacteria, yeast and fungi; and promote tissue regeneration which leads to tissue healing. Among scientists, SPMs help explain part of the answer on how the body returns to homeostasis." A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) found a decrease in nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drug (NSAID) use when individuals with RA were supplemented with more than 2.7 g/d of EPA and DHA for three months or longer. 40 These results were consistent with the fi ndings of a systematic review by a different research group that identifi ed similar drug-sparing effects, and also modest benefi cial effects on joint swelling and pain, and duration of morning stiffness. 41 Oils such as chia and fl axseed are plant sources of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). In a study of healthy volunteers, fl axseed oil use in domestic food preparation for four weeks inhibited TNF- α and IL-1β production by approximately 30 percent. 42 Carolina Chica, nutrition research and regulatory issues at Benexia, pointed to another study evaluating the effects of a diet high in ALA on serum pro-infl ammatory cytokine concentrations and cytokine production in subjects with high cholesterol levels. 43 Compared to participants eating the average American diet, those consuming an ALA-rich diet saw serum levels of TNF-α decrease by 43 percent, and the production by immune cells of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased between 18 and 22 percent. Scientists concluded, Inflammation

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