Natural Products Insider

NOV-DEC 2018

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22 INSIDER November/December 2018 One diet doesn't fi t all athletes and active consumers. Each body, each sport or type of exercise has unique nutritional requirements. Each athlete has different goals, different body compositions and different reactions to dieting. A long- distance runner will have different needs than a weightlifter or a sprinter. Dieting in sports runs the gamut of macronutrient ratios and food and beverage exclusions. A few popular diets include paleo, keto, vegan/vegetarian, gluten-free and intermittent fasting. Relative to body composition and performance, each diet has pros and cons, as well as several dietary ingredients that can help consumers with each diet. Each macronutrient has a general caloric value: 4 calories per gram for each protein and carbs, and 9 calories per gram for fats. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) set the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) at 10 to 35 percent protein, 45 to 65 percent carbohydrate and 20 to 35 percent fat. Carb Restriction So-called "low-carb" diets tend to restrict carbohydrate intake to below 40 to 45 percent of energy intake. People on these diets forgo sugary foods, breads and pasta in favor of carbs from vegetables and some fruits and unrefi ned grains. A very low-carb diet restricts carb intake to 10 percent or less, which eventually puts the body into a state of ketosis, when the body has insuffi cient glucose levels. Ketone bodies—acetoacetate, acetone and beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB)—from the liver are used to fuel tissue such as the brain, sparing glucose metabolism. The body then uses fatty acids to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy molecule produced in cell mitochondria. Low-carb and keto diets tend to be better for endurance sports, which rely more on fat fuel, and not so good for high-intensity exercise, which is mostly carb-driven. Low-carb diets may leave out foods high in fi ber, such as certain grains and fruits, so a fi ber supplement may be useful to keep a healthy gastrointestinal (GI) tract and function. These carb foods also contain fl avonoids and other phytochemicals, as well as key vitamins and minerals that may provide antioxidant and other functional benefi ts, so a multivitamin is not a bad idea for low-carb dieters. Eating a wide variety of greens and vegetables could also help fi ll this void. During ketosis, insulin levels are lower, and the body secretes more sodium and water. This taxes potassium supplies, which the body leans on in the absence of sodium. Supplemental sodium or an electrolyte drink could address these issues. The body's primary source of energy is glucose from carb intake. Glycolysis, the process of making ATP from glucose, fuels the early stages of anaerobic and aerobic exercise. In a low- or very low-carb diet, glycolysis doesn't last long. Creatine may help fuel early exercise until fat oxidative ATP production kicks in. Phosphocreatine in the muscles is the fi rst energy source, as the body draws energy from the muscles in the fi rst 10 or so seconds of exercise. To support the fat-burning phase of keto dieting, carnitine can help shuttle fats into the mitochondria for use in ATP production. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have also emerged as a good source of fatty acids readily used to both drive energy production and raise ketone levels. One study found MCT supplementation raised BHB levels and reduced symptoms of keto-induction, including constipation, headache, halitosis, muscle cramps, diarrhea, general weakness and rash. 1 Supplemental BHB has also hit the market as a way to instantly boost ketone levels in the body. Other ingredients useful for low-carb and keto dieters include beta-alanine, which boosts levels of carnosine to buffer fatigue-triggering histidine that builds up in muscle as a byproduct of ATP production; caffeine, which not only stimulates but also outcompetes fatigue-signaling adenosine in the brain; and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)—leucine, isoleucine and valine—not only to compensate for typically moderate protein intake associated with keto dieting, but also to potentially promote fat oxidation. In its 2017 position stand on diets, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) argued the benefi t or advantage of keto over non-keto diets may not be due to metabolism changes, but in appetite regulation. 2 "Under non-calorically restricted conditions, [the keto diet] has consistently resulted in body fat and/or body weight reduction," they wrote. "This occurs via spontaneous energy intake reduction, which could be due to increased satiety through a suppression of ghrelin production … However, it remains unclear whether the appetite suppression is due to ketosis or Sports Nutrition: Athletes with Specialized Diets | Sports dieting features a range of macronutrient ratios, from low carb and paleo to high protein and vegan diets. | No one diet fits all athletes and active consumers, as each diet impacts energy, muscle and endurance differently, and each sport has different requirements. | Supplements can help fill nutritional gaps in these diets, may help address energy and muscle concerns, and can affect macronutrient absorption, storage and metabolism. Supplements for Sports Dieting by Steve Myers INSIDER's Take Dieting in sports runs the gamut of macronutrient ratios and food and beverage exclusions. A few popular diets include paleo, keto, vegan/vegetarian, gluten-free and intermittent fasting.

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