Natural Products Insider

MAR-APR 2019

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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32 INSIDER March/April 2019 barrier and impact central fatigue, cognitive function and brain energy metabolism. 19 A combination of the amino acids L-alanine and L-glutamine (as Sustamine ® , from Kyowa Hakko) may help delay fatigue by removing ammonia from the muscles; this may result in improved time-to-exhaustion. 20 A bonus with this combo is that glutamine can be converted to α-ketoglutarate, which helps drive the krebs cycle. Accumulating ammonia in muscle and plasma from amino acid breakdown, which may result from increased use of protein for energy in the muscle due to carbohydrate depletion, may be attenuated by carbohydrate ingestion. 21 Israeli company Matok V'Kal, Ltd. has developed a carbohydrate spray, Fit4style Energy Spray, designed and marketed to extend a workout. The idea is that the mere presence of carbs in the mouth can fool the brain into thinking the body has ingested carbs for energy. Some research has shown this theory of a carb mouth rinse triggering taste receptors to promote continued energy and exercise has merit, 22 while other studies have not found such mouth rinses perform any better than traditional fl uid intake during exercise, including water. 23 At least in the United States, dietary supplements must be designed for ingestion, not simply coating the mouth. "Our product is a regular beverage," said Noam Kaplan, CEO of Matok V'Kal. "It is under food and beverage regulations, not dietary supplement." Signaling the brain to wake or rest is a big part of the energy-fatigue equation in exercise. While some ADP and AMP can be restored into ATP, they can also further lose remaining phosphates to become just adenosine and the ribose backbone. This adenosine molecule can settle into adenosine receptors in the brain and signal fatigue. This is only one part of the body's orchestra of sleep-wake signaling, but these adenosine receptors are central to the most common fatigue-inhibitor in sports nutrition and the entire world: caffeine. Caffeine is a purine alkaloid that can antagonize or compete for the adenosine receptors. As the receptors take up caffeine, the fatigue signaling of adenosine is thwarted or delayed. Instead, caffeine speeds up neuronal activity, causing the pituitary gland to release adrenaline. This stimulant effect can help prolong exercise and improve performance, but it can also overamp the cardiovascular system and tax the heart. Caffeine can constrict blood fl ow in some parts of the body. It constricts vessels in the skin to slow bleeding from cuts—caffeine is an ingredient in some aftershaves. Yet, it can increase blood fl ow to the muscles. In the brain, caffeine has reportedly decreased 24 and increased 25 cerebral blood fl ow. The other issue with caffeine is a building up of tolerance, which then requires more caffeine to maintain the prior effect. Chronic and increased doses of caffeine have been linked to addiction/ dependence, which can lead to cardiovascular and perinatal problems. 26 The key to caffeine may be timing and dosage. The U.S. Army used alertness testing to develop an algorithm—available online as 2B-Alert—to personalize the timing of caffeine consumption to maximize the benefi ts while reducing the overall consumption amount. 27 "We assessed the algorithm by comparing the caffeine-dosing strategies (timing and amount) it identifi ed with the dosing strategies used in four experimental studies, involving total and partial sleep loss," the researchers explained. "The algorithm identifi ed strategies that resulted in equivalent performance to that in the experimental studies while reducing caffeine consumption by up to 65 percent." In addition to timing and dosing strategies, ingredient suppliers have introduced innovative caffeine versions to help brands formulate effective but responsible energy and pre-workout products. For example, ingredient manufacturer zümaXR developed targeted release caffeine ingredients (co-commercialized by PLT Health Solutions) to avoid the typical crash as caffeine depletes. Delayed release delivers a shorter, but more pronounced, caffeine effect, while extended release provides a longer, but steady, caffeine effect. Many energy and pre-workout formulas contain caffeine anhydrous, a dehydrated source that is very concentrated and pure, but some consumers use this form of caffeine on its own. However, FDA has warned against the use of pure caffeine powders in bulk form, which can result in accidental overdosing and lead to dangerous health problems, including death. Caffeine anhydrous can be made synthetically or naturally. Synthetic caffeine tends to be less expensive and is often used in sports nutrition formulas. Despite the popularity of synthetic caffeine among formulators, many consumers demand more natural sources Sports Nutrition: Energy Sports Nutrition Market Opportunities at SupplySide East Interested in learning about the ingredients and marketing approaches to reach female athletes? Weekend warriors? Traditional bodybuilders? Check out some of the latest market launches, and hear about the science supporting these growing categories during the "Sports Nutrition & Active Lifestyles: Ingredients, Demographics & Market Whitespace" session at SupplySide East in Secaucus, New Jersey, on April 10 at 9 a.m. Scan Here

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