Natural Products Insider

APR 2012

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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Diabetes Fast Facts r Diabetes is a chronic disease of high levels of sugar in the blood. Per the American Diabetes Association, a diabetes diagnosis comes from a fasting (eight hours) glucose value higher than 126 mg/ml, a two-hour post load glucose level higher than 200 mg/dl, or symptoms of diabetes and a random plasma glucose concentration greater than 200 mg/dl. r With type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin, and treatment usually requires daily injections of insulin. It's usually diagnosed in children, teens or young adults. r In type 2 diabetes, cells do not correctly respond to insulin; diagnosis used to occur only in adulthood, but with growing obesity rates, childhood and teen diagnosis is more common. It develops over time with continuous spikes in blood sugar, which eventually develops into resistance to insulin. r The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in January 2011 that 25.8 million children and adults in the United States—8.3 percent of the population—have diabetes (diagnosed or undiagnosed), and 79 million people have fasting glucose levels high enough to be considered prediabetes. r The CDC estimated 35 percent of U.S. adults aged 20 years or older and 50 percent of those 65 years or older have prediabetes. r The number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes more than tripled from 1980 through 2010 (5.6 million to 20.9 million), according to CDC. average reduction in insulin of 28.2 percent when faced with the same sucrose challenge. Many nutritionists encourage increased fiber consumption, but this adage is especially true for diabetes patients because it can slow or even block the absorption of carbs into the blood. A Georgetown University, Washington, study found adding oat bran to the diet can ameliorate sucrose-induced blood pressure elevations in spontaneously hypertensive rats.38 According to a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel group trial, 6 g/d of barley beta-glucan (as Barliv™, from Cargill) consumed in a beverage over 12 weeks improved insulin sensitivity among individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes.39 Unl ike carb blockers, resistant starches escape enzymatic digestion and pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract undigested. Resistant starches pass into the colon where they may be fermented into short chain fatty acids and other health-promoting compounds. Hi-Maize resistant starch (from Corn Products International) contains a mixture of rapidly digested and slowly digested starch (digested within the small intestine) and resistant starch (which reaches the large intestine and is fermented by the resident bacteria). A 2005 study with a four-week supplementation period of 30 g/d of Hi-Maize improved insulin sensitivity compared to placebo.40 A few years earlier, the same team of researchers found adding 60 g of Hi-Maize to the diet led to next-day lower plasma glucose and insulin levels with a higher insulin sensitivity compared to diets without supplementation.41 A different set of researchers in China found four weeks of 30 g/d of Hi-Maize increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased fasting blood glucose, post meal blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) compared to controls.42 32 INSIDER ¥ APRIL 2012 In 2008, Swedish researchers reported adding wheat bread enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and Hi-Maize improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unfortified white bread.43 The resistant-starch functional bread also lowered inflammatory markers and increased satiety. In an animal model, Hi-maize increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), another hormone that regulates insulin sensitivity, gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake.44 That study also found resistance starch increased peptide YY, a hormone that contributes to gastric emptying and appetite regulation. The most recent study on Hi-Maize, published in February 2012, found consumption of 15 to 30 g/d of the ingredient increased the insul in sensitivi ty in men in four weeks; however, it did not affect insulin sensitivity in women.45 Natural Sweeteners Natural sweeteners that impart no or fewer calories than sugar can also be an effective way for those with diabetes to keep insulin numbers in check. Stevia, a no-calorie sweetener from a South and Central American plant, gained GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status in 2008, allowing it to be formulated into foods and beverages. This was good news for those with diabetes who prefer this sweetener, as studies have shown stevioside treatment is associated with improved insulin signaling and antioxidant defense in both the adipose tissue and the vascular wall, leading to inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque development in insulin-resistant mice. 46 In 1986, Brazilian researchers reported 5 g Stevia rebaudiana extract administered to healthy volunteers at regular six-hour intervals for three days increased glucose tolerance, and decreased plasma glucose levels after consumption and after an overnight fast.47 In 2004 Danish DIABETES

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