Natural Products Insider

SEP-OCT 2017

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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34 INSIDER September/October 2017 Protein is the keystone of sports nutrition, as it is the most crucial dietary component for building muscle. A wide range of animals, plants and even fungi contain protein, although dairy has dominated the sports nutrition market until recently. Not only have sports formulators taken advantage of the wider range of sources, but they have benefi ted from new delivery forms. The digestive system breaks protein into amino acids, which are then used in the body to make a range of new proteins, from blood and immune cells to muscles and other connective tissue such as cartilage and skin. There are 20 amino proteogenic amino acids, each varying in purpose and benefi t. In sports nutrition, much focus has been on the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine. These are among the group called essential amino acids (EAAs), which cannot be synthesized in the body, so must come from the diet. BCAAs have become a key target for boosting muscle protein synthesis (MPS), the building of proteins that create new muscle fi bers. Leucine has taken center stage, and some research suggests there is a leucine threshold above which MPS is triggered. The International Society for Sports Nutrition (ISSN), via a 2017 position statement in its own journal (JISSN, 2017; 14:20), noted rapidly digesting proteins that contain signifi cant EAAs and leucine is most effective in stimulating MPS. "Increasing leucine concentration may stimulate increases in muscle protein, but a higher total dose of all EAAs (as free form amino acids or intact protein sources) see) ms to be most suited for sustaining the increased rates of MPS," ISSN stated. In fact, ISSN placed the dosing range at 20 to 40 g of protein containing 1 to 3 g of leucine, and 10 to 12 g of EAAs for stimulating MPS and promoting positive nitrogen balance; proteins, unlike fats and carbohydrates, carry nitrogen molecules, and a positive nitrogen status in the body suggests there is suffi cient protein for muscle growth. Leucine and its fellow BCAAs are found across protein types, but some sources offer more per gram than others. Dairy Cow milk appears to contain the highest density of leucine among protein sources. Milk contains two types of protein, casein (about 80 percent) and whey (20 percent). Milk protein concentrate (MPC) theoretically maintains this ratio of casein to whey, which remain after other components of milk are fi ltered out before concentration. The casein in MPC is micellar, and whey is "native" and undenatured, if the supplier uses gentle fi ltration and low heat. Whey is a fast-digesting protein, while casein is a slower-digesting protein, but both contain high amounts of leucine. Each has its advantages and challenges relative to MPS and catabolism (protein breakdown). Casein has become known as a "pre-sleep" protein, and ISSN noted 30 to 40 g casein before bed stimulates overnight MPS and higher metabolic rate. Micellar casein is a fi t for food and beverage applications. PRODIET ® Fluid is a unique micellar casein from Ingredia Functional, which explained the ingredient can be formulated into sports drinks up to 14 percent protein, while still maintaining a fl uid quality similar to that of milk. The high-protein, low-fat ingredient contains 92 percent micellar casein and is rich in BCAAs, especially leucine. The company noted this casein's slower action translates to a longer effect. Whey protein has been the most popular source for many years and is available in several forms, including isolate, concentrate and hydrolysate. As a quick-acting protein, whey taken before resistance exercise can increase activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a signaling pathway that regulates protein synthesis and energy production by amino acids. However, whey protein taken before or after exercise can stimulate MPS. Whey protein ingredients are often made as a byproduct from cheese production— whey is the liquid left behind after milk is curdled and strained. This process can involve high-temperature pasteurization, which threatens the integrity of the protein. Native whey protein is made independent of cheese production and uses a gentler fi ltration process and low temperatures. By using fresh milk to exclusively make whey protein this way, functional components such as lactoferrin and immunoglobulins are better preserved, according to Lactalis, which recently started making its PRONATIV ® native whey protein ingredient after 15 years of research and development, and major investments. Victoire Visseaux, global brand manager, PRONATIV ® Sports Nutrition, noted the ingredient is made from hormone-free (rBST-free) cows in France and the United Sports Nutrition: Protein Muscle growth via stimulation of protein synthesis is the main benefit of protein supplementation in sports nutrition. Protein sources across the range of dairy, meat and plants have various levels of the amino acids required for muscle growth. Several natural ingredients can improve protein utilization and boost benefits such as muscle recovery. Protein Choices Abound for Sports Nutrition by Steve Myers INSIDER's Take Protein Dosing In its position paper, The International Society for Sports Nutrition (ISSN) stated an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4 to 2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is a suffi cient dose to build and maintain muscle mass in most active consumers. This recommendation aligns with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for protein.

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