Natural Products Insider

JAN-FEB 2018

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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10 INSIDER January/February 2018 assorted byproducts. Carbohydrates are the quickest source of glucose for glycolysis. The body either uses carbs to make ATP or stores them as glycogen. The primary dietary carbs for increased glucose are sucrose, or common table sugar, and maltodextrin, which is often found in sports nutrition products. Complex carbs, such as maltodextrin, are better at increasing muscle glycogen than are simple carbs such as glucose, dextrose and fructose. However, dextrins and glucose have a low molecular weight, which can increase osmotic pressure when used in sports drinks, and ultimately trigger nausea and digestive distress from increased gastric emptying time. Glico Nutrition developed Cluster Dextrin ® , a highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) with a higher molecular weight and no negative impact on gastric emptying time. Ribose is a fi ve-carbon carbohydrate either made in the body from glucose or ingested via the diet. It is part of the structural backbone of the ATP molecule, which is why Bioenergy developed Bioenergy Ribose to help the body reproduce ATP more quickly than with sucrose, maltodextrin or other common carbs. Early or "fast" glycolysis occurs in anaerobic conditions, using enzymatic reactions to produce a small amount of ATP as well as pyruvate and hydrogen ions. In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen ions and lactate can fl ood the muscles, changing the pH balance and creating a state of acidosis and subsequent fatigue. Supplementing with the amino acid beta-alanine can increase levels of carnosine, a dipeptide that helps buffer hydrogen ions, removing them from muscles and limiting fatigue. As oxygen from increased breathing begins to hit the muscle cells, aerobic or "slow" glycolysis takes over. This process is marked by oxidative reactions used to produce larger amounts of ATP. In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate from early glycolysis oxidizes into coenzyme A inside the cell mitochondria and combines with oxaloacetate to form citric acid; this drives a series of reduction and oxidation reactions to produce ATP via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) or Krebs cycle. Like the action of beta-alanine and carnosine, the amino acids L-alanine and L-glutamine (as Sustamine ® , from Kyowa Hakko) can stave off fatigue by removing muscle ammonia leftover from amino acid metabolism. Glutamine can also be converted enzymatically into α-ketoglutarate, which helps drive ATP production from a different position in the Krebs cycle than does coenzyme A. While carbs are the primary source of glucose and eventually coenzyme A for the Krebs cycle, fats stored as triglycerides can also be converted into coenzyme A. For this, fatty acids must be transported into the mitochondria by carnitine. About 95 percent of the body's carnitine stores are found in skeletal muscle, but carnitine is also ingested from meat and dairy in the diet. Lonza developed carnitine tartrate (as Carnipure ® ) to help increase muscle carnitine levels and boost ATP production from fatty acids; this also spares muscle glycogen during exercise. Choline is another transporter of fats for energy production and is commonly found in the body in phospholipid form as phosphatidylcholine (PC). Fat as fuel is a hallmark of ketogenic dieting. During fasting or a very low carbohydrate diet, the body runs out of carbs/glucose and turns to fat oxidation for energy. The body uses acetyl coenzyme A to make k etones, such as acetoacetate and beta-hy droxybutyrate (BHB), which can feed the Krebs cycle and then the electron transport chain. While the liver makes ketones from fats, Compound Solutions developed a BHB ingredient, goBHB™, to help consumers deliver more ketones to their cellular energy system and improve not just sports performance, but also weight management and general energy needs. The company also pairs goBHB with its med ium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ingredient, goMCT™, which can serve as a readily available source of ketone-making material. After the Krebs cycle, the body uses oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP for energy. In this process, chemicals produced during the Krebs cycle contain electrons that undergo a chain of redox reactions inside the mitochondria's inner membrane. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) helps carry these electrons through the electron transport chain to create ATP. Throughout the many processes of ATP production and restoration, enzymes are needed for the conversion of many chemicals. In addition to magnesium, minerals such as iron, copper and manganese are required to make the necessary enzymes. Natreon developed PrimaVie ® , a mineral-rich ingredient made from shilajit, a resin from Himalayan rocks that has been touted in India's traditional Ayurvedic medicine for benefi ts such as improved energy. Another source of minerals is ancient peat, which Futureceuticals combined with apple polyphenols in its elevATP™ ingredient developed to help increase ATP levels in the blood and muscles for improved energy and exercise performance. Apple polyphenols add an antioxidant benefi t to ATP production, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is potentially harmful to the very mitochondria that make ATP. Addressing ROS from energy production and exercise is one way to limit fatigue. Sports Nutrition Energy The primary dietary carbohydrates for increased glucose are sucrose, or common table sugar, and maltodextrin, which is often found in sports nutrition products. Complex carbs, such as maltodextrin, are better at increasing muscle glycogen than are simple carbs such as glucose, dextrose and fructose. More on Keto Dieting For additional information on ketogenic dieting, check out the recent article The Ins and Outs of Ketogenic Dieting by Bruce Kneller, Giant Sports International. Scan Here

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