Natural Products Insider

MAR-APR 2018

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28 INSIDER March/April 2018 Exercise and competition can take a toll on the body. Energy reserves run low, soreness strikes muscles and joints, the brain gets foggy and immunity dips. While much of sports nutrition has focused on fueling a workout and enhancing performance, recovery is an important factor in muscle development and getting ready for the next bout. Given the wide range of post-workout targets, a long list of dietary ingredients, including proteins, plants and specialty compounds, are poised to benefi t recovery formulations. Many such ingredients may help tackle several aspects of recovery. Perhaps the most apparent consequence of exercise is exhaustion. The body's methods of producing energy deplete nutrients used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecule that releases energy when its bonds break. The primary sources of fuel for workouts, especially intense exercise, include muscle stores of phosphocreatine and glycogen. Phosphocreatine is used to rapidly make ATP and is the fi rst fuel source used in exercise. Glycogen is made from carbohydrates and converts into glucose for use to make ATP via glycolysis, which lasts longer than the phosphocreatine method. Replenishing these muscle stores is crucial to improved recovery and readiness for subsequent exercise. Supplemental creatine is a common pre-workout ingredient, but taking it after a workout can restore phosphocreatine levels in the muscles. A 2013 study of recreational bodybuilders found creatine supplementation either before or after resistance training increased muscle mass and strength, but these benefi ts were greater when creatine was taken immediately following workout. 1 Carbohydrate intake boosts glycogen storage and provides energy for muscles and the brain. Beverages for rehydration and energy are key formats for delivering carbohydrates during immediate recovery. Simple carbs such as glucose, sucrose (table sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) often have low molecular weight, which may cause increased gastric emptying time and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. A form of maltodextrin called highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) can provide quick energy, and it is higher in molecular weight. According to Glico Nutrition, which makes Cyclic Dextrin ® , HBCD mixes well with vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other key recovery nutrients without changes to osmolality and gastric emptying time. Certain minerals are key electrolytes crucial to rehydration formulations, but the world of minerals has even more to offer recovery, including energy restoration. Copper, iron and manganese are important for enzymes that facilitate reactions across many areas of ATP production. A cluster of minerals found in ancient peat may help boost energy. In combination with apple polyphenols (as elevATP™, from Futureceuticals), these minerals boost ATP levels in blood and muscles, while the phenolic antioxidants clean up reactive oxygen species (ROS) created during ATP production. 2 A mineral paste commonly sourced from the Himalayan mountains, shilajit contains fl uvic acid, more than 40 minerals and various pyrones and chemoproteins. In addition to enhancing ATP production and relieving fatigue, shilajit has shown an ability to increase testosterone levels and increase skeletal muscle adaptations. 3 Energy consumption in endurance exercise often involves a switch to fat oxidation as carbohydrates and glycogen stores are depleted. A very low carb status, called ketosis, also involves use of ketone bodies—acetoacetate and beta- hydroxybutyrate (BHB)—to fuel the brain and muscles. Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), often found in coconut and palm oils, increase fat metabolism for energy production and support the body's production of ketone. 4 A 2017 study concluded a ketone-focused beverage ingested by healthy trained males increased levels of BHB and enhanced post-exercise activation of mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), which controls protein synthesis. 5 Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is the process of building new muscle. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and the amino acid leucine may be the key to triggering MPS by activating mTOR. 6 Leucine is one of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)—isoleucine and valine are the others—which has long been thought to boost MPS without the essential amino acids found in dietary protein. However, a 2017 review published by the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (JISSN) concluded BCAA supplements alone do not promote muscle building, rather a "physiologically signifi cant increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis requires adequate availability of all amino acid precursors." 7 Whey is popular form of protein supplementation, especially in sports nutrition, as it is a complete protein, meaning it contains the ideal ratio of all essential amino acids. Whey is a fast- acting source of protein, quickly increasing MPS. This makes it a fi t for supplementation immediately following exercise. A recent trend in whey protein is "native" whey, which is less processed than "regular" whey. However, a 2017 study of resistance trained men and women concluded despite higher blood leucine concentrations from native whey supplementation compared to whey protein concentrate (WPC), MPS rates were similar in both groups. 8 Native whey did generate higher MPS rates than milk. Exercise depletes energy, creates oxidative stress, triggers inflammation, damages muscles and suppresses immune function. Probiotics address several areas of recovery including inflammation, muscle development and immunity. A growing area of sports nutrition recovery is inflammation and muscle damage, with botanicals and specialty ingredients leading the charge. After the Battle: Recovery From Exercise by Steve Myers INSIDER's Take Sports Nutrition: Recovery

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