Natural Products Insider

MAY-JUN 2018

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20 INSIDER May/June 2018 Bioactive milk proteins (as Osteol™, from Nexira) not only protect cartilage but also may quell joint infl ammation, according to unpublished research combining Osteol with glucosamine and chondroitin. The combination reduced infl ammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The Infl ammation Battle A growing list of natural ingredients to limit and reduce infl ammation has garnered attention in the joint health market, particularly among exercising consumers. Omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are directly involved in the infl ammatory cascade facilitated by COX (cyclooxygenase) and LOX (lipoxygenase) enzymes that produce anti- and pro-infl ammatory mediator and signaling compounds (e.g., resolvins). For instance, resolvin D1 helps resolve infl ammation and preserve tissue integrity. In vitro research demonstrated resolvin D1 is active in synovial fl uid (a component of joints), and regulates infl ammatory cytokines and oxidative stress that impact OA progression. 20 Research on omega-3s and joint health focuses on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease, not the wear-and-tear of OA or temporary infl ammation related to exercise. However, the appearance and actions of omega- 3-signaling derivatives, such as resolvins in the joint, suggest potential benefi ts for sports nutrition joint management. One study involving OA patients found daily fi sh oil supplementation signifi cantly improved knee performance, compared to controls and based on VAS scores. 21 Another trial reported DHA supplementation in women protected against range of motion loss often caused by strenuous eccentric exercise. 22 Cetylated fatty acids (derived from bovine tallow oil) work similarly to omega-3s to help reduce infl ammation and cartilage degradation. A study of OA patients who took cetylated fatty acids (as Celadrin ® , from Pharmachem) found improved knee range of motion and overall function after just over two months of supplementation, compared to those taking placebo. 23 Much of the other published research on Celadrin involves topical application, although the benefi ts to pain and function management are worth noting. A bulk of the anti-infl ammatory push in the joint market has come from botanical ingredient research. Many botanicals contain compounds that impact infl ammation, as evidenced by documented infl uence on infl ammatory biomarkers, but not all have been researched specifi cally on joint health endpoints. The Ayurvedic botanical Boswellia serrata targets infl ammation by inhibiting enzymes such as LOX that tend to trigger pro- infl ammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL) and TNF-α. One study found 113 of 522 genes induced by TNF-α were sensitive to boswellia extract (as 5-LOXIN ® , from PLT), Sports Nutrition: Joint Health

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