Natural Products Insider

JUL-AUG 2018

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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20 INSIDER July/August 2018 Every consumer approaches muscle building differently. Some want every skeletal muscle to bulge out as big as humanly possible. Some just want to tone the right muscles for their sport or active pursuits, without adding too much bulk. A lot of consumers are somewhere in between. The simple muscle math is this: when muscle protein synthesis (MPS) outpaces muscle protein breakdown (MPB), new muscle is built. In a nutshell, exercise damages muscle fi bers; the body repairs damaged fi bers and forms new muscle protein strands called myofi brils. In the sports nutrition world, this is called muscle adaptation, and new muscles are called gains. Protein is the obvious nutritional king of muscle builders, but specifi c amino acids have been singled out as more important than others at initiating MPS, and numerous other natural ingredients have shown promising impacts on muscle growth, signaling and delivering more muscle- building nutrients to the skeletal muscles. Muscle Nutrition Dietary protein contains amino acids for building new muscle. This role has made protein the top sports nutrition ingredient. Dairy and animal proteins have dominated the sports market, as these are "complete" proteins, meaning they contain each of the nine essential amino acids (EAAs) that the body can't produce. Among the dairy proteins, whey is considered a fast-acting protein, making it ideal for use on the envelope of exercise, while casein is a slow-acting protein considered useful for keeping the body fl ush with amino acids overnight or during longer-term recovery. Most plant protein ingredients—pea, rice, hemp and fl ax—are from sources missing or insuffi cient in one or more EAAs. Formulators have considered blending two or more of these plant sources to deliver a complete protein or to maximize key amino acids such as leucine. Soy is a complete protein, as is a new protein ingredient from water lentils or duckweed (Lentein ® ), according to the supplier Parabel. The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)—leucine, isoleucine and valine—are EAAs considered by many sports nutrition experts as crucially important for muscle building, with leucine enjoying a special spotlight. According to current scientifi c knowledge, the primary regulator of MPS is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway—this protein kinase is found in skeletal muscles as mTOR or mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The prevailing theory is leucine activates mTOR signaling for muscle growth more signifi cantly than do the other BCAAs and EAAs. A threshold of between 1.7 g/kg to 3.5 g/kg of leucine is the proposed target, the level at which triggers MPS. "Whey protein isolate (>90 percent protein) delivers around 8.4 percent leucine, and pea protein concentrate (>80 percent protein) delivers around 5.6 percent leucine," noted Corbin Hohl, research scientist, Glanbia Nutritionals. "That being said, pea protein offers a strong plant protein option that pairs well with other plants proteins, dairy proteins or free form amino acids to hit target levels." Many companies try to boost leucine content of protein ingredients or formulations, or add leucine to a protein formula. Research has shown adding leucine to casein increases postprandial MPS, whereas adding leucine to whey protein produced similar MPS stimulation, as did whey protein alone. 1 The researchers confi rmed adding leucine to protein sources already containing suffi cient leucine content provided no additional benefi t to MPS. Some protein ingredient suppliers have highlighted increased leucine content. International Dehydrated Foods (IDF) noted each 30 g scoop of its CHiKPRO™ chicken protein isolate contains 25 g of protein, including 7.5 g of leucine. On the plant side, Lentein contains 5 g of leucine per dose. Leucine can be metabolized in skeletal muscle, and its metabolites may possess similar anabolic properties. One such metabolite is HMB (beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate), which has demonstrated the potential to stimulate MPS and inhibit MPB to encourage lean body mass development following exercise. 2 A combination of leucine, HMB and phosphatidic acid (PA, as Mediator ® , from Chemi Nutra) increased lean muscle mass and muscle strength better than exercise alone. 3 A combination of amino acids alanine and glutamine (as Sustamine ® , from Kyowa Hakko) limits MPB and, when taken with MPS-stimulating whey protein, provides this same one-two punch for muscle growth. Insulin similarly works both sides of the muscle development equation. When The heart of muscle building is a repair mechanism driven by increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and limited muscle protein breakdown (MPB). MPS relies on mTOR signaling, available protein and essential amino acids (EAAs), namely leucine, and adequate insulin to promote EAA uptake. Delivering increasing energy potential and improving blood flow can flood muscles with nutrition and fuel needed to drive workouts for bigger muscle building. MuscleMania: Nutrition for Beefing Up the Bod by Steve Myers INSIDER's Take Sports Nutrition: Muscle Building The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)—leucine, isoleucine and valine—are essential amino acids considered by many sports nutrition experts as crucially important for building muscle, with leucine enjoying a special spotlight.

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