Natural Products Insider

JUL-AUG 2018

INSIDER is the leading information source for marketers, manufacturers and formulators of dietary supplements, healthy foods and cosmeceuticals. Since 1997, INSIDER has been serving the needs of the global nutrition industry.

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Page 36 of 68 24 INSIDER July/August 2018 Increasing muscle ATP using a combination of ancient peat and apple polyphenols (as elevATP ® , from Futureceuticals) was shown to benefi cially augment power and strength adaptations to resistance training. 9 The combo may impact irisin, a myokine that activates satellite cells and MPS, but the supplement has the capability to improve blood fl ow and provide more substrate for the phosphagen system (creatine phosphate). Limiting fatigue in muscles can have a similar effect. Carnosine buffers hydrogen ions that can accumulate in muscles as a byproduct of glycolysis, the process of turning glucose into ATP—this process spans both anaerobic and aerobic exercise states. Beta-alanine is a precursor to carnosine. When taken as a supplement, beta-alanine combines with histidine to form carnosine. While fuel is necessary for muscle to work, muscles cannot contract without proper signals from the brain. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is the brain's messenger for muscle contractions. Acetylcholine travels across the neuromuscular junction, the bridge between motor neurons and muscle fi bers, and signals muscles to contract. The body manufactures acetylcholine from choline supplies in the blood, which come from dietary choline—liver, eggs and peanuts are high in choline; fi sh, beef and other meats and dairy also supply good choline content. Krill contains phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid and astaxanthin, which all affect muscle development. Krill oil activates mTOR signaling in resistance- trained men. 10 Plants like spinach and beets are rich in the choline metabolite betaine, which improves muscle endurance, strength and power. Among possible mechanisms behind betaine's muscle benefi ts are activation of insulin signaling and IGF-1 release, as well as stimulation of growth hormone secretion, creatine synthesis and MPS. 11 The amino acid arginine also signals muscle cells to release growth hormones. Arginine is popularly known as a precursor nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator—it relaxes blood vessel walls to increase blood fl ow. Improved blood fl ow to muscles brings important nutrients to them and both facilitates longer workouts and increases muscle volume (called "pump"). A combination of arginine, silicon and inositol (as Nitrosigine ® , from Nutrition 21) elevates blood levels of arginine and NO. 12 This action can boost muscle pump and combat muscle damage. 13 Nitrates boost NO and are found in many root vegetables, including beets. Supplemental nitrates in combination with sprint interval training increased the proportion of type IIa muscle fi bers. 14 Nitrates from short-term beetroot supplementation can improve physiological and functional responses in type II muscle fi bers. 15 Nitrate-rich beetroot extract supplementation during heavy resistance exercise may provide neuromuscular benefi ts, including fi ring rates. 16 The crux of muscle building may be on boosting MPS and limiting MPB, and delivering the right EAAs to muscles post-exercise—popularly via protein intake—may be the primary supplementation target. However, energizing muscles, maintaining good muscle function and maximizing nutrient delivery to muscles are all important aspects to consider when developing a muscle-building product. Surely, protecting muscle from exercise-related antioxidants and infl ammation may also be a consideration, which would open up muscle-building formulations to an even wider range of supportive ingredients. As always, the key is research on specifi c activities and ben efi ts. Achieving athletic goals with real micellar casein ingenuity i n g r e d i a - a m e r i c a @ i n g r e d i a . c o m Muscle recovery Increased satiety Excellent fluidity Sports Nutrition: Muscle Building For a list of references, email

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